The longer I do this work, the more I run into sources that contain some misinformation, which in turn, is used by some as a basis for building family trees that become, ultimately, incorrect. I decided that the best way for me to keep track of those sources for myself and to share the same with other researchers of my family surnames is to publish those notes here on my research website. If you find that you disagree with any source I have listed here, please feel free to contact me. Watch for updates to this list.

To be clear, this bibliography lists sources that contain, I believe, misinformation that pertains specifically to a family surname I am researching. I cannot and do not argue with any other information presented in these sources, and I am not recommending that any of these sources be altogether dismissed.

Full citations of sources that do support claims related to my family surnames will be cited in genealogical proof summaries, to be posted on this site as they become available.

NOTE: I have added links to these document titles which will take you to Internet Archive, which I much prefer over Google Books these days. Unfortunately, there is currently a bug with their search feature, so if you search for something, you could be told there are no results, when in fact, there are. Here's a brief description of the problem and a work-around. My approach for searching is simply to click the Full Text Download Option on the lower-right side under the ebook display. Once I find the text I'm looking for, I note the page number, then return to the ebook and slide directly to that page for easier reading. And if none of this makes sense to you, don't worry about it if you avoid searching. In the following list of titles, I provide page numbers, so you can navigate to that page without using search.


Daughters and Sons of American Revolution

Previously approved applications that claim either George Summers, 1722-1785, or George Summers, 1747-1825, as Revolutionary ancestors are probably incorrect. See my blog entry, Sommer Revolutionary Pats.

It should be noted that in my attempts to contact the DAR and SAR to request that previously approved applications for these individuals be flagged, the SAR agreed to do so almost immediately. The DAR, on the other hand, will not even review the information until a new member applies claiming either of these George Summers as Revolutionary ancestors. What does NOT MAKE SENSE is that new members may use previously approved applications as part of their current application. Don't get me wrong, I have a great deal of respect for the DAR, but this policy of letting potentially incorrect claims stand for however long is, in my opinion, a disservice to the genealogical community.


Early History of Michigan with Biographies of State Officers, Members of Congress, Judges and Legislators, by S.D. Bingham, published Lansing, 1888, pg 623.
See my blog entry, Addressing Misinformation - Michigan Summers.

History of Macomb County, Michigan: containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources, etc., no authors listed, published 1882, pg 738.
See my blog entry, Addressing Misinformation - Michigan Summers.

The Progenitors and Descendants of Col. Stephen Mack and Temperence Bond Mack, by Locke A. Sprague, published Milwaukee, WI, 1975, pp. 71-72; available on
This source states that the father of David Summers was John Summers (correct) who was born in England (incorrect, John Summers Esq. of Sussex, NJ was born in PA; the grandfather of David was George Summers who had emigrated from Freistett, Germany in 1752).

New Brunswick

New Voices on the Shores by Rainer L. Hempel, pp. 142 and 403

While this book is full of wonderful information, some of the genealogical references to Matthias Sommer are incorrect. Specifically, we know that our Matthias Sommer did not marry Maria Magdalena Aldmann (see my article, Establishing the German Origins of Mathias Sommer, Settler of Monckton Twp, p. 4). The evidence shows that Matthias Sommer had three wives, two in Germany (Maria Magdalena Sommer and Anna Barbara Gramp), and the third, Christina Null(in), he married in Philadelphia in 1749.

New Jersey

History and Genealogy of the Jacob Banghart Family, New Jersey Tercentenary Edition, 1664-1964 by Frederick L. Mullin, p. 268

"On Feb. 28, 1775 he [Andrew Banghart] married Catherine Summers, daughter of Ensign George Summers of Oxford Twp, NJ." See my article "Questioning the Revolutionary Service of George Summers, Oxford, Sussex, New Jersey" (2016). The brother rather than the father of Catherine Summers probably served in the NJ militia, and even then, he served in 1777, two years after this marriage.

New Jersey Newspapers announcing the election of George Summers to the New Jersey Assembly in 1829. Specifically:

Because I could not determine any man named George Summers living in Warren County, NJ at that time, especially within my Freistett clan, I knew this report was questionable. Sure enough, it was Jacob Summers, the one who was politically active throughout his life, who was the one elected. This according to these sources:


Passenger Lists of Ships Arriving to PHL
Regarding the ship Anderson, which arrived in August, 1751, the name of Matthias Sumer appeared on the passenger list of these sources:

The following source, however, lists the arrival of the ship Anderson one day later (Aug. 26 rather than Aug. 25), and there are 53 fewer names, including that of Mathias Sumer. I have so far not found an explanation for this.

In the same way, other ship lists are also inconsistent. For example, some lists show Martin Sommer arrived on the ship Brothers on 22 Sep. 1752 but his name does not appear on other lists. It's important, I think, to cross-check all the possible sources. And when doing so, my additional observation is that when comparing name-by-name one list with another, you will find the spellings of names varies wildly. So take time and take care.

A history of George Summers of Douglass and Lower Dublin townships, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania by G. Byron Summers, privately published, 1918, 34 pages.
From what I can tell, much of the information in this source likely comes from the same account provided by William Summers of Conshohocken in Biographical Annals of Montgomery County. Again, I assert that most of this account applies to the Sommer family of Hoch-Weisel, and the references to George apply to the Sommer family of Freistett.

A History of the townships of Byberry and Moreland in Philadelphia, Pa., from their earliest settlements by the whites to the present time by Joseph C. Martindale, 1867, revised by Albert Dudley, 1901, p. 223, 242.
We've been unable to find any trace of an Edward Sommer who fought for PA in the Revolution and was captured by the British. Instead, there is a great deal of evidence that Jacob Sommer of Moreland is the name of just such a person.

Biographical annals of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania : containing genealogical records of representative families, including many of early settlers and biographical sketches of prominent citizens by Ellwood Roberts. New York, Chicago: T.S. Benham; Lewis Pub. Co., 1904, p. 534.
This account is a mish-mash of two different Sommer families; see Differentiating Sommer Surnames. References to George Sommer/Summers who arrived in 1752 as well as George who lived in Warrington pertain to the Sommer family from Freistett, and not the family from Hoch-Weisel.

Genealogical Notes, by Vivian Moore, published Michigan, 1924, pp. 168-173; available on
The claim that Jacob Sommer of Germantown was a prisoner of the British in 1778 cannot be substantiated, but instead has been associated with Jacob Sommer of Moreland. See my article, Jacob Sommer of Moreland Township, Philadelphia County in the American Revolution", 2015.

History of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, from the discovery of the Delaware to the present time by Davis, Ely, Jordan, 2nd edition, Vol. 3 Illustrated., Lewis Publishing, NY & Chicago, 1905, pp. 490-492.
This account is verbatim the same as found in Biographical annals of Montgomery County.

History of Philadelphia: 1609-1884, Volume II, by John Thomas Scharf, Thompson Westcott, 1884, page 1572.
The reported year of death for Jacob Sommer, 1857, is incorrect. Jacob Sommer of Moreland died in 1827; his grandson, Jacob J. Sommer died in 1857.

Montgomery County Pennsylvania, A History by Clifton Hunsicker, Lewis Publishing, NY & Chicago, 1926, p. 684-690.
This account is verbatim the same as found in Biographical annals of Montgomery County. This publication, however, gives much more insight into the life of William Summers - there's no question that he was a dedicated historian and genealogist. He just didn't know about the Freistett Sommer's who had all left the area by William's lifetime.

Martin's bench and bar of Philadelphia : together with other lists of persons appointed to administer the laws in the city and county of Philadelphia, and the province and commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Rees Walsh, by John Hill Martin, 1883; page 79.
The reported year of death for Jacob Sommer, 1857, is incorrect. Jacob Sommer of Moreland died in 1827; his grandson, Jacob J. Sommer died in 1857.

Oaths of allegiance, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1777-1786 by Richard T. and Mildred C. Williams, Danboro, PA, 1973.
I hesitate to include this title but I think it deserves a Red Flag. The front matter of this source says, "The original Book of Allegiance is in the Bucks County Historical Society in Doylestown, PA. This list gives only the date the oath was subscribed, and his name. Further research has added the township in which the person lived .... thereby making this a more valuable record." Unfortunately, the "further research" was not sourced, and so the very thing that makes this a more valuable record becomes questionable. At least I have found reason to question the township associated with a Summers name.

“The District Court of the City and County of Philadelphia, An Address Delivered at the Final Adjournment of the Court, Jan. 4, 1875” by James T. Mitchell; Report of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Pennsylvania Bar Association held at Wilkes-Barre, PA, July 6 and 7, 1899; pp. 273-284.
The very end of this account claims that Jacob Sommer became a justice of the peace for Bristol, Germantown, and Roxborough toward the end of his life, 1823. Because I have found some of those JP records dated AFTER "my" Jacob Sommer's death in 1827, I contend it was a different Jacob Sommer who became a JP, probably the son of Jacob Sommer, carriage-maker, who lived in Germantown.

18th Century Records of the German Lutheran Church of Philadelphia (St. Michaels and Zion), Volumes 1-5 (1745-1800) by Robert L. Hess and F. Edward Wright, Lewes, DE, 2008, Vol 2, p. 365.
The transcription for "Anna Cath., of Casp. Oberdorf and Anna Cath., b. 6 Oct 1774, bapt. 14 Mar 1775." is incorrect. I was able to locate the original record (FHL films) and the mother was NOT "Anna Cath." but "Marg." This was a lesson to question translations and transcriptions. For comparison, I also discovered another older translation for St. Michaels and Zion records:
"The Records of St. Michaels and Zion Lutheran Congregation of Philadelphia," Pennsylvania German Church Records of Births, Baptisms, Marriages, Burials, Etc. From The Pennsylvania German Society Proceedings and Addresses, by Julius Friedrich Sachse, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1983.


Updated August 6, 2018